At a Glance
Drug Name: Abacavir Sulfate [USAN, USN]
Commercial Name(s): Ziagen®
NDC Code(s): 69097-514-03
Drug Class: NRTI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
Drug Category: Human, Prescribed
Packager: American Health Packaging
Expanded Information for Doctors / Patients
Information sourced from the U.S National Library of Medicine.
A carbocyclic nucleoside with potent selective anti-HIV activity. Abacavir sulfate is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside analogue with inhibitory activity against HIV-1. The chemical name of abacavir sulfate is (1 S,cis)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9 H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol sulfate (salt) (2:1). Abacavir sulfate is the enantiomer with 1S, 4R absolute configuration on the cyclopentene ring. It has a molecular formula of (C 14H 18N 6O) 2•H 2SO 4 and a molecular weight of 670.76 g per mol.
Abacavir tablets USP 300 mg, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, are indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection.
Abacavir is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Abacavir is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). It works by decreasing the amount of HIV in the blood. Although abacavir does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. Taking these medications along with practicing safer sex and making other lifestyle changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus to other people.
1 Screening for HLA-B*5701 Allele prior to Starting Abacavir tablets
Screen for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with abacavir tablets [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
2 Recommended Dosage for Adults Patients
The recommended dosage of abacavir sulfate for adults is 600 mg daily, administered orally as either 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily, in combination with other antiretroviral agents.
3 Recommended Dosage for Pediatric Patients
The recommended dosage of abacavir sulfate in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients aged 3 months and older is 8 mg per kg orally twice daily or 16 mg per kg orally once-daily (up to a maximum of 600 mg daily) in combination with other antiretroviral agents.
Abacavir tablet is also available as a scored tablet for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients weighing greater than or equal to 14 kg for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate. Before prescribing abacavir tablets, children should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets. If a child is unable to reliably swallow abacavir tablets, the oral solution formulation should be prescribed.
4 Recommended Dosage for Patients with Hepatic Impairment
The recommended dose of abacavir sulfate in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) is 200 mg twice daily. To enable dose reduction, abacavir oral solution (10 mL twice daily) should be used for the treatment of these patients. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir sulfate is contraindicated in these patients
Abacavir tablet is contraindicated in patients:
– who have the HLA-B*5701 allele.
– with prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir
– with moderate or severe hepatic impairment
1 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred with abacavir. These hypersensitivity reactions have included multi-organ failure and anaphylaxis and typically occurred within the first 6 weeks of treatment with abacavir (median time to onset was 9 days); although abacavir hypersensitivity reactions have occurred any time during treatment [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1)]. Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions; although, patients who do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele have developed hypersensitivity reactions. Hypersensitivity to abacavir was reported in approximately 206 (8%) of 2,670 patients in 9 clinical trials with abacavir-containing products where HLA-B*5701 screening was not performed. The incidence of suspected abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in clinical trials was 1% when subjects carrying the HLA-B*5701 allele were excluded. In any patient treated with abacavir, the clinical diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction must remain the basis of clinical decision making.
Due to the potential for severe, serious, and possibly fatal hypersensitivity reactions with abacavir:
All patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with abacavir or reinitiation of therapy with abacavir, unless patients have a previously documented HLA-B*5701 allele assessment.
Abacavir is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients.
Before starting abacavir, review medical history for prior exposure to any abacavir-containing product. NEVER restart abacavir or any other abacavir-containing product following a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status.
To reduce the risk of a life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status, discontinue abacavir immediately if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, even when other diagnoses are possible (e.g., acute onset respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pharyngitis, or influenza; gastroenteritis; or reactions to other medications).
If a hypersensitivity reaction cannot be ruled out, do not restart abacavir or any other abacavir-containing products because more severe symptoms which may include life-threatening hypotension and death, can occur within hours.
If a hypersensitivity reaction is ruled out, patients may restart abacavir. Rarely, patients who have stopped abacavir for reasons other than symptoms of hypersensitivity have also experienced life-threatening reactions within hours of reinitiating abacavir therapy. Therefore, reintroduction of abacavir or any other abacavir-containing product is recommended only if medical care can be readily accessed.
A Medication Guide and Warning Card that provide information about recognition of hypersensitivity reactions should be dispensed with each new prescription and refill.
2 Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues, including abacavir. A majority of these cases have been in women. Female sex and obesity may be risk factors for the development of lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis in patients treated with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. Treatment with abacavir should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity, which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations.
3 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including abacavir. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
4 Myocardial Infarction
Several prospective, observational, epidemiological studies have reported an association with the use of abacavir and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Meta-analyses of randomized, controlled, clinical trials have observed no excess risk of MI in abacavir- treated subjects as compared with control subjects. To date, there is no established biological mechanism to explain a potential increase in risk. In totality, the available data from the observational studies and from controlled clinical trials show inconsistency; therefore, evidence for a causal relationship between abacavir treatment and the risk of MI is inconclusive.
As a precaution, the underlying risk of coronary heart disease should be considered when prescribing antiretroviral therapies, including abacavir, and action taken to minimize all modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking).
In a trial of 11 HIV-1-infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy with 600 mg of abacavir twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased. This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients.
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancyoutcomes in women exposed to abacavir during pregnancy. Healthcare Providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
Available data from the APR show no difference in the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background rate for birth defects of 2.7% in the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) reference population (see Data). The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks’ gestation. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15% to 20%. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in fetal malformations and other embryonic and fetal toxicities at exposures 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical daily dose. However, no adverse developmental effects were observed following oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis, at exposures approximately 9 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical dose (see Data).
Human Data: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 2,000 exposures to abacavir during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 1,000 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of defects in live births was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0% to 4.1%) following first trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens and 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9% to 3.7%) following second/third trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens.
Abacavir has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery.
Animal Data: Abacavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 100, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 125, 350, or 700 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on gestation Days 6 through 17 and 6 through 20, respectively). Fetal malformations (increased incidences of fetal anasarca and skeletal malformations) or developmental toxicity (decreased fetal body weight and crown-rump length) were observed in rats at doses up to 1,000 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures approximately 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended daily dose. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 100 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) 3.5 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. In a fertility and early embryo-fetal development study conducted in rats (at 60, 160, or 500 mg per kg per day), embryonic and fetal toxicities (increased resorptions, decreased fetal body weights) or toxicities to the offspring (increased incidence of stillbirth and lower body weights) occurred at doses up to 500 mg per kg per day. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 60 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that abacavir is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In pregnant rabbits, no developmental toxicities and no increases in fetal malformations occurred at up to the highest dose evaluated, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 9 times the human exposure at the recommended dose.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Abacavir is present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of abacavir on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving abacavir.
The safety and effectiveness of abacavir have been established in pediatric patients aged 3 months and older. Use of abacavir is supported by pharmacokinetic trials and evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of abacavir in adults and pediatric subjects.
Clinical trials of abacavir did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of abacavir in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function
A dose reduction is required for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir have not been established in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment; therefore, abacavir is contraindicated in these patients
Mechanism of Action
Abacavir is an antiretroviral agent
Pharmacokinetics in Adults
The pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir were independent of dose over the range of 300 to 1,200 mg per day.
Absorption: Following oral administration, abacavir is rapidly absorbed and extensively distributed. The geometric mean absolute bioavailability of the tablet was 83%. Plasma abacavir AUC was similar following administration of the oral solution or tablets. After oral administration of 300 mg twice daily in 20 subjects, the steady-state peak serum abacavir concentration (Cmax) was 3.0 ± 0.89 mcg per mL (mean ± SD) and AUC(0-12 h) was 6.02 ± 1.73 mcg•hour per mL. After oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg of abacavir in 20 subjects, Cmax was 4.26 ± 1.19 mcg per mL (mean ± SD) and AUC¥ was 11.95 ± 2.51 mcg•hour per mL.
Effect of Food: Bioavailability of abacavir tablets was assessed in the fasting and fed states with no significant difference in systemic exposure (AUC∞); therefore, abacavir tablets may be administered with or without food. Systemic exposure to abacavir was comparable after administration of abacavir oral solution and abacavir tablets. Therefore, these products may be used interchangeably.
Distribution: The apparent volume of distribution after IV administration of abacavir was 0.86 ± 0.15 L per kg, suggesting that abacavir distributes into extravascular space. In 3 subjects, the CSF AUC(0-6 h) to plasma abacavir AUC(0-6 h) ratio ranged from 27% to 33%.
Binding of abacavir to human plasma proteins is approximately 50% and was independent of concentration. Total blood and plasma drug-related radioactivity concentrations are identical, demonstrating that abacavir readily distributes into erythrocytes.
Elimination: In single-dose trials, the observed elimination half-life (t½) was 1.54 ± 0.63 hours. After intravenous administration, total clearance was 0.80 ± 0.24 L per hour per kg (mean ± SD).
Metabolism: In humans, abacavir is not significantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The primary routes of elimination of abacavir are metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase to form the 5¢-carboxylic acid and glucuronyl transferase to form the 5¢-glucuronide. The metabolites do not have antiviral activity. In vitro experiments reveal that abacavir does not inhibit human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or CYP2C9 activity at clinically relevant concentrations.
Excretion: Elimination of abacavir was quantified in a mass balance trial following administration of a 600-mg dose of 14C-abacavir: 99% of the radioactivity was recovered, 1.2% was excreted in the urine as abacavir, 30% as the 5¢-carboxylic acid metabolite, 36% as the 5¢-glucuronide metabolite, and 15% as unidentified minor metabolites in the urine. Fecal elimination accounted for 16% of the dose.
Patients with Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir sulfate have not been determined in patients with impaired renal function. Renal excretion of unchanged abacavir is a minor route of elimination in humans.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have been studied in subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). Results showed that there was a mean increase of 89% in the abacavir AUC and an increase of 58% in the half-life of abacavir after a single dose of 600 mg of abacavir. The AUCs of the metabolites were not modified by mild liver disease; however, the rates of formation and elimination of the metabolites were decreased.
Pregnant Women: Abacavir: Abacavir pharmacokinetics were studied in 25 pregnant women during the last trimester of pregnancy receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily. Abacavir exposure (AUC) during pregnancy was similar to those in postpartum and in HIV-infected non-pregnant historical controls. Consistent with passive diffusion of abacavir across the placenta, abacavir concentrations in neonatal plasma cord samples at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery.
Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have been studied after either single or repeat doses of abacavir sulfate in 169 pediatric subjects. Subjects receiving abacavir oral solution according to the recommended dosage regimen achieved plasma concentrations of abacavir similar to adults. Subjects receiving abacavir oral tablets achieved higher plasma concentrations of abacavir than subjects receiving oral solution.
The pharmacokinetics of abacavir dosed once daily in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects aged 3 months through 12 years was evaluated in 3 trials (PENTA 13 [n = 14], PENTA 15 [n = 18], and ARROW [n = 36]). All 3 trials were 2-period, crossover, open-label pharmacokinetic trials of twice- versus once-daily dosing of abacavir and lamivudine. For the oral solution as well as the tablet formulation, these 3 trials demonstrated that once-daily dosing provides comparable AUC0-24 to twice-daily dosing of abacavir at the same total daily dose. The mean Cmax was approximately 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher with abacavir once-daily dosing compared with twice-daily dosing.
Geriatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of abacavir sulfate have not been studied in subjects older than 65 years.
Male and Female Patients: A population pharmacokinetic analysis in HIV-1-infected male (n = 304) and female (n = 67) subjects showed no gender differences in abacavir AUC normalized for lean body weight.
Racial Groups: There are no significant or clinically relevant racial differences between blacks and whites in abacavir pharmacokinetics.
Drug Interaction Studies
Effect of Abacavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Agents: In human liver microsomes, abacavir did not inhibit cytochrome P450 isoforms (2C9, 2D6, 3A4). Based on these data, it is unlikely that clinically significant drug interactions will occur between abacavir and drugs metabolized through these pathways.
Based on in vitro study results, abacavir at therapeutic drug exposures is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of the following transporters: organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP)1B1/3, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or Pglycoprotein (P-gp), organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, or multidrug and toxic extrusion protein (MATE)1 and MATE2-K.
Effect of Other Agents on the Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir: In vitro, abacavir is not a substrate of OATP1B1, OAP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, MATE1, MATE2-K, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2 or MRP4; therefore, drugs that modulate these transporters are not expected to affect abacavir plasma concentrations. Abacavir is a substrate of BCRP and P-gp in vitro; however, considering its absolute bioavailability (83%), modulators of these transporters are unlikely to result in a clinically relevant impact on abacavir concentrations.
Lamivudine and/or Zidovudine: Fifteen HIV-1-infected subjects were enrolled in a crossover-designed drug interaction trial evaluating single doses of abacavir (600 mg), lamivudine (150 mg), and zidovudine (300 mg) alone or in combination. Analysis showed no clinically relevant changes in the pharmacokinetics of abacavir with the addition of lamivudine or zidovudine or the combination of lamivudine and zidovudine. Lamivudine exposure (AUC decreased 15%) and zidovudine exposure (AUC increased 10%) did not show clinically relevant changes with concurrent abacavir.
Ethanol: Abacavir has no effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol. Ethanol decreases the elimination of abacavir causing an increase in overall exposure. Due to the common metabolic pathways of abacavir and ethanol via alcohol dehydrogenase, the pharmacokinetic interaction between abacavir and ethanol was studied in 24 HIV-1-infected male subjects. Each subject received the following treatments on separate occasions: a single 600-mg dose of abacavir, 0.7 g per kg ethanol (equivalent to 5 alcoholic drinks), and abacavir 600 mg plus 0.7 g per kg ethanol. Coadministration of ethanol and abacavir resulted in a 41% increase in abacavir AUC∞ and a 26% increase in abacavir t1/2. Abacavir had no effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol, so no clinically significant interaction is expected in men. This interaction has not been studied in females.
Methadone: In a trial of 11 HIV-1-infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy (40 mg and 90 mg daily), with 600 mg of abacavir sulfate twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased 22% (90% CI: 6% to 42%). This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients [see Drug Interactions (7)]. The addition of methadone had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of abacavir
Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue. Abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP), an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (dGTP). CBV-TP inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA.
The antiviral activity of abacavir against HIV-1 was assessed in a number of cell lines including primary monocytes/macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). EC50 values ranged from 3.7 to 5.8 microM (1 microM = 0.28 mcg per mL) and 0.07 to 1.0 microM against HIV-1IIIB and HIV-1BaL, respectively, and the mean EC50 value was 0.26 ± 0.18 microM against 8 clinical isolates. The median EC50 values of abacavir were 344 nM (range: 14.8 to 676 nM), 16.9 nM (range: 5.9 to 27.9 nM), 8.1 nM (range: 1.5 to 16.7 nM), 356 nM (range: 35.7 to 396 nM), 105 nM (range: 28.1 to 168 nM), 47.6 nM (range: 5.2 to 200 nM), 51.4 nM (range: 7.1 to 177 nM), and 282 nM (range: 22.4 to 598 nM) against HIV-1 clades A-G and group O viruses (n = 3 except n = 2 for clade B), respectively. The EC50 values against HIV-2 isolates (n = 4), ranged from 0.024 to 0.49 microM. The antiviral activity of abacavir in cell culture was not antagonized when combined with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine or zidovudine, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine, or the protease inhibitor (PI) amprenavir. Ribavirin (50 microM) used in the treatment of chronic HCV infection had no effect on the anti–HIV-1 activity of abacavir in cell culture.
HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to abacavir have been selected in cell culture. Genotypic analysis of isolates selected in cell culture and recovered from abacavir-treated subjects demonstrated that amino acid substitutions K65R, L74V, Y115F, and M184V/I emerged in HIV-1 RT. M184V or I substitutions resulted in an approximately 2-fold decrease in susceptibility to abacavir. Substitutions K65R, L74M, or Y115F with M184V or I conferred a 7-to 8-fold reduction in abacavir susceptibility, and combinations of three substitutions were required to confer more than an 8-fold reduction in susceptibility.
Thirty-nine percent (7 of 18) of the isolates from subjects who experienced virologic failure in the abacavir once-daily arm had a greater than 2.5-fold mean decrease in abacavir susceptibility with a median-fold decrease of 1.3 (range: 0.5 to 11) compared with 29% (5 of 17) of the failure isolates in the twice-daily arm with a median-fold decrease of 0.92 (range: 0.7 to 13).
Cross-resistance has been observed among NRTIs. Isolates containing abacavir resistance-associated substitutions, namely, K65R, L74V, Y115F, and M184V, exhibited cross-resistance to didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir in cell culture and in subjects. An increasing number of thymidine analogue mutation substitutions (TAMs: M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, K219E/R/H/Q/N) is associated with a progressive reduction in abacavir susceptibility.
Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, with multiple organ involvement, have occurred with abacavir.
Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir; although, hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients who do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele..
Abacavir is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients. All patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with abacavir or reinitiation of therapy with abacavir, unless patients have a previously documented HLA-B*5701 allele assessment. Discontinue abacavir immediately if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status and even when other diagnoses are possible.
Following a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, NEVER restart abacavir or any other abacavir-containing product because more severe symptoms, including death can occur within hours. Similar severe reactions have also occurred rarely following the reintroduction of abacavir-containing products in patients who have no history of abacavir hypersensitivity
There is no known specific treatment for overdose with abacavir. If overdose occurs, the patient should be monitored and standard supportive treatment applied as required. It is not known whether abacavir can be removed by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.
Abacavir was administered orally at 3 dosage levels to separate groups of mice and rats in 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Results showed an increase in the incidence of malignant and non-malignant tumors. Malignant tumors occurred in the preputial gland of males and the clitoral gland of females of both species, and in the liver of female rats. In addition, non-malignant tumors also occurred in the liver and thyroid gland of female rats. These observations were made at systemic exposures in the range of 6 to 32 times the human exposure at the recommended dose of 600 mg.
Abacavir induced chromosomal aberrations both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation in an in vitro cytogenetic study in human lymphocytes. Abacavir was mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, although it was not mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation in an L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay. Abacavir was clastogenic in males and not clastogenic in females in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Abacavir was not mutagenic in bacterial mutagenicity assays in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.
Impairment of Fertility
Abacavir did not affect male or female fertility in rats at a dose associated with exposures (AUC) approximately 3.3 times (male) or 4.1 times (female) those in humans at the clinically recommended dose.
Each tablet contains abacavir sulfate USP equivalent to 300 mg of abacavir as active ingredient and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. The tablets are coated with a film that is made of hypromellose, iron oxide yellow, polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.